When you hire someone to drill a well, what are you hiring them to do?
Most people don't give much thought to where the water they use every day comes from. If you live outside of town, you most likely get your water from a well. Wells need to be drilled.
The goal of well drilling is to break through the outer layers of earth and dirt to reach what is called the bedrock, where groundwater can be found and then pumped up for you to use. The first layer of soil is called overburden and is made up of sand, clay, dirt, and rocks. Overburden sits on top of the bedrock. How far down the bedrock is depends on many factors and can vary widely in different places. People who run well drilling services will drill down past the overburden to hit the water in the bedrock.
Many drillers use a rotary drill, which rotates as it grinds down into the earth, allowing it to cut through the soil and rock. It is a tall and heavy-duty machine that requires a professional to operate properly.
Another option a driller may use is a cable drilling tool. This tool basically works by repeatedly raising and dropping a heavy and blunt weight in order to crush rock and earth and penetrate deep into the ground. This machine also requires a professional who is an expert on how to use it. It is big and bulky and can be tricky to handle.
Both machines are generally transported on the back of trucks, and there is usually another truck that carries other supplies needed for a well drilling. The truck will need to be level when the drilling starts, and to aid in this, the truck will have built-in leveling legs.
When the rig is set up, the operator will attach a drill bit and the drilling will start. The drill bit is most often made up of three rotating and spiked pieces of metal; the bit also has a hole near the base where the drill can shoot out compressed air and water to help break up the earth. When the bedrock is breached and water has been reached, the well drillers will insert and weld casings, which are like giant pipes. These casings will be fitted with PVC pipes, and then a pump will be installed. When all of this is done, you will have access to your very own reserve of underground water.
For more information, contact a well drilling service in your area.